The robot is a machine or electro-mechanical device used for various purposes and the working and controlling of a robot can be done with the help of programming techniques. There are different types of robots are available based on their applications like industrial robots, space robots, military robots, walking robots, domestic robots, climbing robots, and so on. In this article, let us discuss a special type of robotic vehicle namely line following, walking and climbing robotic vehicle. The robotic vehicles like line following, walking and climbing robotic vehicles are special sort of robots designed without a human on board. These robots are operated and controlled by employing various sensor-based control systems. These robots are specially designed in some conditions like where human beings are not capable to go in such as fire accidents, very high or very low temperatures, etc.,

Line Following, Walking and Climbing Robotic Vehicle

In the present scenario, a human has to carry the needs and supply the goods to the production-based industry. So every time there will be a manual work and waste of source utilization for the purpose. In the present scenario, proposing a system that utilization of a robot for carrying goods in a specified path. Useful in production based industries, home applications, help us in the reduction of manual work. Less cost with automatic detection of a path, which makes efficient use of a robot.

Hardware Components

The hardware requirements of this project include IR diode, Photodiode, TIP122 transistor, and DC motor, Resistor,  Capacitorand Battery.

Climbing Robotic Vehicle Block Diagram

Climbing Robotic Vehicle Block Diagram

IR LED

An IR or infrared LED also known as IR transmitter. It is a special purpose LED that transmits IR rays in the 760 nm wavelength range. Generally, these are made with aluminium gallium arsenide or gallium arsenide. They along with IR receivers are commonly used as sensors. Since the human eye cannot see the infrared radiations, To overcome this difficulty, the camera on a cell phone can be used. The camera can show us the IR rays being emanated from the IR LED in a circuit.

IR LED

IR LED

Photo Diode

A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation. Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with a window or optical fibre connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device.

Photo Diode

Photo Diode

Transistor TIP122

The devices are manufactured in planar technology with “base island” layout and monolithic Darlington configuration. The resulting Transistors show exceptional high gain performance coupled with very low saturation voltage.

Transistor TIP122

Transistor TIP122

The devices are qualified for Automotive application

  • Low collector-emitter saturation voltage
  • Complementary NPN – PNP Transistors

DC- Motor

A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. In an electric motor, the operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a “North” polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a “South” polarization).Every DC motor has six basic parts — axle, the rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes.

DC- MOTOR

DC- MOTOR

Battery

An electrical battery is a combination of one or more electrochemical cells, used to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. The battery has become a common power source for many household, robotics and industrial applications. Larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centres.

Battery

Battery

Project Description

The proposed system is intended to design a robotic vehicle that follows an exact path, also walks and climbs the wall. This project doesn’t need a microcontroller for its process. A couple of photosensors including IR transmitter & photodiode, where this diode is used to notice the particular path for its movement while for walking and climbing the walls. The motors simply are used with little extra homemade equipment easily made by the student. Line follower or walking robot is a helpful robot that is used in industries, warehouses, and stores etc, where it follows a committed path. This proposed system fulfils the preferred functionality and shows the working of it.

Climbing Robotic Vehicle

The line following robot uses a pair of photosensors, comprising of one IR transmitter and a photodiode in each. It shows the robot to track a specified path by giving the suitable signal to the switching transistors that drive the motors. Further, the proposed system can be enhanced with the help of a microcontroller to add cleverness to the robot by writing an appropriate program.

Are you interested in designing robotic projects on your own? Do you know how to design humanoid robots? If you want to know more about engineering projects, then you can post your queries, comments, ideas and suggestions in the comments section below for any technical help.Here is a question for you, what are the advantages of the line following robot?